In this episode, I explain how ketamine causes rewiring of brain circuits and dissociative states to relieve symptoms of depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). I explain how ketamine impacts both the brain’s glutamate and its endogenous opioid pathways, which together regulate mood and well-being. I discuss how ketamine therapy is used clinically to treat major depression, bipolar depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), suicidality and other psychiatric challenges. I also describe how ketamine causes the subjective effects of dissociation and euphoria and, at higher doses, is an anesthetic. I compare the different routes of ketamine administration, dosages and forms of ketamine, and if micro-dosing ketamine is effective. I also highlight the potential risks of recreational ketamine use (and the colloquial term ‘K-holes’). This episode should interest anyone interested in ketamine, treatments for depression, neuroplasticity mechanisms, psychiatry and mental health.
- Antidepressant effects of ketamine in depressed patients (Biological Psychiatry)
- Attenuation of antidepressant and antisuicidal effects of ketamine by opioid receptor antagonism (Molecular Psychiatry)
- atai Life Sciences Announces Results from Phase 2a Trial of PCN-101 (R-ketamine) for Treatment-Resistant Depression
- Comparative effects of (S)-ketamine and racemic (R/S)-ketamine on psychopathology, state of consciousness and neurocognitive performance in healthy volunteers (European Neuropsychopharmacology)
- Ketamine Metabolite (2R,6R)-Hydroxynorketamine Interacts with μ and κ Opioid Receptors (ACS Chemical Neuroscience)
- The Science & Treatment of Bipolar Disorder (Huberman Lab episode)